VRT is supported by 15 years of research with clinical studies and papers published in more than 20 leading journals, of which some of the key findings can be summarized as:

  • Approximately 70% of patients experience positive outcome reflected by an increase in their visual field and studies have indicated an average increase of 4.9 degrees (Mueller I, et al., 2007; Romano JG, et al., 2008).
  • Elapsed time since injury does not seem to impact VRT therapies success. Therefore, a large historical backlog of patients can potentially be treated (Romano JG, et al., 2008).
  • Improvements are permanent and do not appear to be age or gender dependent.

The average approximate five-degree improvement in central vision from VRT can make a significant difference in patients’ daily lives ((Gall C, et al,. 2008) and patients experienced a functional improvement such as improvements in their vision that impact their ability to read, walk, watch TV, and socialize comfortably.

  1. Visual field enlargement after computer training in brain-damaged patients with homonymous deficits: an open pilot trial
    Authors: Kasten E., Sabel B.A.
    Publication: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience. 1995; 8:113-127
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21551894
  2. Computer-based training for the treatment of partial blindness
    Authors: Kasten E., Wuest S., Behrens-Baumann W., Sabel B.A.
    Publication: Nature Medicine 1998; 4: 1083-1087
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9734406
  3. Vision restoration therapy (VRT) efficacy as assessed by comparative perimetric analysis and subjective questionnaires
    Authors: Sabel B.A., Kenkel S., Kasten E.
    Publication: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience 2004; 22:399-420
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15798360
  4. Does VRT Change Absolute Homonymous Visual Field Defects? A Fundus-Controlled Study
    Authors: Reinhard J., Schreiber A., Schiefer U., Kasten E., Sabel B.A., Kenkel S., Vonthein R., Trauzettel-Klosinski S.
    Publication: British Journal of Ophthalmology, 2005; 89:30-35
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15615742
  5. Effect of visual restitution training on absolute homonymous scotomas
    Authors: Schreiber A., Vonthein R., Reinhard J., Trauzettel- Klosinski S., Connert C., Schiefer U.
    Publication: Neurology 2006; 67:143-145
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16832095
  6. Visual field changes after a rehabilitation intervention: Vision restoration therapy
    Authors: Romano J.G., Schulz P., Kenkel S., Todd D.P.
    Publication: Journal of the Neurological Sciences 2008; 273:70-74
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18672255
  7. Recovery of visual field defects: A large clinical observational study using vision restoration therapy
    Authors: Mueller I., Mast H., Sabel B.A.
    Publication: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience. 2007; 25:563-572
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18334773
  8. Effects of long-term use of Vision Restoration Therapy (VRT) and stability of visual field improvements > 3 years
    Authors: Gall C., Müller I., Kaufmann C., Sabel B.A.
    Publication: Poster presented at Annual Meeting of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society 2006
    http://content.lib.utah.edu/cdm/ref/collection/ehsl-nam/id/550
  9. Stability of Visual Field Enlargements Following Computer-Based Restitution Training – Results of a Follow-up
    Authors: Kasten E., Müller-Oehring E., Sabel B.A.
    Publication: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology. 2001; 23:297-305
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11404808
  10. Multifactorial predictors and outcome variables of vision restoration training in patients with post-geniculate visual field loss
    Authors: Poggel D.A., Mueller I., Kasten E., Sabel B.A.
    Publication: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience 2008; 26:321-339
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18997309
  11. Vision Restoration Therapy after brain damage: subjective improvements of activities of daily life and their relationship to visual field enlargements
    Authors: Mueller I., Poggel D.A., Kenkel S., Kasten E., Sabel B.A.
    Publication: Visual Impairment Research 2003; 5: 157-178
    http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1388235039048692
  12. Vision and health-related quality of life before and after vision restoration training in cerebrally damaged patients
    Authors: Gall C., Mueller I., Gudlin J., Lindig A., Schlueter D., Jobke S., Franke G., Sabel B.A.
    Publication: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience 2008; 26:341-353
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18997310
  13. The topography of training-induced visual field recovery: Perimetric maps and subjective representations
    Authors: Poggel D.A., Mueller-Oehring E., Kasten E., Bunzenthal U., Sabel B.A.
    Publication: Visual Cognition 2008; 16:1059
    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/233832682_The_topography_of_traininginduced_visual_field_recovery_Perimetric_maps_and_subjective_representations
  14. Visual field recovery after vision restoration therapy (VRT) is independent of eye movements: An eye tracker study
    Authors: Kasten E., Bunzenthal U., Sabel B.A.
    Publication: Behavioural Brain Research 2006; 175:18-26
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16970999
  15. Attentional cueing improves vision restoration therapy in patients with visual field defects
    Authors: Poggel D.A., Kasten E., Sabel B.A.
    Publication: Neurology, 2004; 63:2069-2076
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15596752
  16. Vision restoration through extrastriate stimulation in patients with visual field defects – a double-blind and randomized experimental study
    Authors: Jobke S., Kasten E., Sabel B.A.
    Publication: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2009; 23:246-255
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19240199
  17. Brain Activity Associated With Stimulation Therapy Of The Visual Border Zone In Hemianopic Stroke Patients
    Authors: Marshall R.S., Ferrera J.J., Barnes A., Zang X., O’Brien K.A., Chmayssani M., Hirsch J., Lazar, R.M.
    Publication: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair. 2008; 22:136-144
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17698955
  18. Functional brain imaging, clinical and neurophysiological outcome of visual rehabilitation in a chronic stroke patient
    Authors: Julkunen L., Tenovuo O., Vorobyev V., Hiltunen J., Teräs M., Jääskeläinen S., Hämäläinen H.
    Publication: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience 2006; 24:123-132
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16720948
  19. Retinal Microperimetry as a Means to Assess Visual Field Expansion in Visual Restoration Therapy
    Authors: Chmayssani M., Minzer B., Saxena N., Arogyasami R., Lazar R., Greenstein V.C., Marshall R.S.
    Publication: Poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Neurology 2008
    Link http://www.researchgate.net/publication/238770947_Retinal_Microperimetry_as_a_Means_to_Assess_Visual_Field_Expansion_in_Visual_Restoration_Therapy
  20. Stability of the Blind Spot as a Measure of Fixation Stability in Visual Restoration Therapy
    Authors: Marshall R.S., Schulz P., Kenkel S., Romano J.
    Publication: Poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Neurology 2008
  21. Visual function in anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: Effect of Vision Restoration Therapy – A pilot study
    Authors: Jung C.S., Bruce B., Newman N.J., Biousse V.
    Publication: Journal of the Neurological Sciences 2008; 268:145-149
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18207164
  22. Computer based vision restoration therapy in glaucoma patients: A small open pilot study
    Authors: Gudlin J., Mueller I., Thanos S., Sabel B.A.
    Publication: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience 2008; 26:403-412
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18997315
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